## How to Select a Diode for Circuit Design

Diode has many uses. It could be as a rectifier, a reverse blocking device, a component in a switching converter or in a switching power supply and so on. Regardless, what application it is, they are the same parameters to consider. These parameters are all given in the diode datasheet. If you are looking for guidance on how to select

## BJT Voltage Divider Bias Design Template

BJT Voltage Divider Bias Design Template – Mathcad This design template comes in two formats. First is in Mathcad and the second one is in excel. The equations are derived in Mathcad. This is all you need to design such circuit. No need to go back to basics and perform research again on how to derive equations. It is all

## What is Voltage Regulator – Explained in Details

A linear voltage regulator is the easiest to deal with. It is very easy to create and do not need much technical knowledge to understand its behavior. It has two variations: series and shunt.

## How to Know if a Transistor Defective

Transistor is an active electronic part. An active electronic part is something can perform amplifications or signal processing. Transistors are basic elements on power amplifiers, audio amplifiers, switching converters, power supplies and so on. A transistor term is somewhat generic. It could be a BJT, MOSFET of JFET. But for common people (electronic hobbyist), it is commonly referring to a

## SURGE PROTECTION CIRCUIT PRINCIPLE and DESIGN

Surge protection circuit is the one referred by many as protector for voltage spikes in AC grid lines; however it is not limited particularly in AC grid lines. Surge protector or surge protection device is a device that will provide surge suppression or voltage spike suppression so that sensitive devices will not get damage. Surge protector can handle voltage spikes

## NPN Transistor Principles and Practical Uses

Basic NPN Transistor Principles Universities are covering this topic very well but despite I still attempt to discuss NPN transistor principles that I think easier to understand for non technical people. NPN transistor is the name given to a bipolar junction transistor with two N type materials or negative carriers while there is only one P type material or positive

## How Linear Regulator Provides Output Regulation

In power supply the term voltage regulation is often mentioned and this is a very important thing actually. Nobody will buy a power supply with an output that has a voltage swing of 10% or even higher. Imagine for a 12V output the voltage can go as high as 13.2V and as low as 10.8V. This is ridiculous. In today’s

## Fixed Bias Configuration with a Divider Resistor in the Base Complete Analysis

This article will uncover the fixed bias configuration with a divider resistor complete analysis. Actually this is another variation of a fixed bias circuit as shown in Figure 87. The only difference of this circuit is the addition of a resistor RB2 as shown in the figure. At application wherein the base is not tied up with the supply , when

## How to know if a Transistor is Saturated?

There are several ways how to know if a transistor is saturated or not. It is very important that if you design a transistor to function as a switch that it should operate in the saturation and cutoff. Operation at cutoff is simply interrupting the bias of the transistor. However operating at saturation is not that easy. You need to

## How to Analyze Optocoupler in Feedback System

One of the usual applications of optocoupler is to provide isolation between two ground reference. That is why it is often seen in power supply feedback circuit. How to analyze optocoupler in feedback system is to discussed in this article. Keep on reading below. How to analyze optocoupler in feedback system is not as difficult as you think. However, the lack