## Optocoupler Circuit Design and Detailed Analysis

Actually, Optocoupler circuit design is not that difficult as some thought. It’s just like you are designing a BJT circuit. If a BJT has its beta or current gain, optocoupler has its CTR or current transfer ratio. Once you know what a CTR is and learn how to use it, then Optocoupler circuit design is that easy. Current transfer ratio

## How to Bias Optocoupler: The Complete Course

How to bias optocoupler is even simpler than bipolar junction transistors. However such device is not well discussed in the universities making people believe that it is a difficult device to deal with. Here I will reveal the methods and techniques on how to bias optocoupler. Before jumping to the main topic on how to bias optocoupler, let me touch some

## How Switch Mode Power Supply Regulates its Output

In linear power supply design output regulation is not a question because it is easily done by the linear regulator inserted before the load. Nowadays linear power supply is not anymore widely used. What is drawing more attention now is the switch mode power supply. How switch mode power supply regulates its output is different from what linear regulator does.

## How Linear Regulator Provides Output Regulation

In power supply the term voltage regulation is often mentioned and this is a very important thing actually. Nobody will buy a power supply with an output that has a voltage swing of 10% or even higher. Imagine for a 12V output the voltage can go as high as 13.2V and as low as 10.8V. This is ridiculous. In today’s

## How to Sweep Temperature in LTSpice with Step by Step Tutorials

In this article we will learn the ways on how to sweep temperature in LTSpice. In voltage, current and resistance sweeping you need to declare a certain parameter inside curly braces. In temperature sweeping you don’t have to. When a temperature sweep is used, LTSpice automatically vary the properties of components with respect to desired temperatures. For instance, the forward voltage

## How to Sweep Resistance in LTSpice with Step by Step Tutorials

In this article I will hand to you how to sweep resistance in LTSpice with step by step tutorials. Unlike voltage and current, resistance sweeping is not possible to do in the DC Sweep section under Edit Simulation Command. The convenient way to sweep resistance is through the spice directive. The same process on how to setup a voltage sweep

## Fixed Bias Configuration with a Divider Resistor in the Base Complete Analysis

This article will uncover the fixed bias configuration with a divider resistor complete analysis. Actually this is another variation of a fixed bias circuit as shown in Figure 87. The only difference of this circuit is the addition of a resistor RB2 as shown in the figure. At application wherein the base is not tied up with the supply , when

## Complete Analysis of a Fixed Bias Circuit using NPN Transistor

This article will uncover the complete analysis of a fixed bias circuit. Figure 73 below shows a simple common emitter configuration. It has a base resistor RB, collector resistor RC but no emitter resistor. In general, this biasing technique is called as non-emitter stabilized bias because there is no emitter resistor. By some, this is also called as the fixed bias.