## How to Calculate the Duty Cycle of Boost Converter

The inductor waveform is the key on how to calculate the duty cycle of boost converter. You can get direct equation for boost converter duty cycle formula from different sites but here I will discuss how it is derived. Meanwhile, a familiar boost converter schematic is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 The inductor of the boost converter charges during

## How to Saturate a PNP Transistor

PNP transistor is very useful in high side driving. A successful high side driving circuit starts with the proper understanding how to saturate a PNP transistor. Below are the steps to do it. How to Saturate a PNP Transistor – Step 1 Make sure that the circuit supplies are able to forward bias the emitter-base junction How to Saturate a

## How to know if a Transistor is Saturated?

There are several ways how to know if a transistor is saturated or not. It is very important that if you design a transistor to function as a switch that it should operate in the saturation and cutoff. Operation at cutoff is simply interrupting the bias of the transistor. However operating at saturation is not that easy. You need to

## Open Collector and Push-Pull Configurations

Open collector and push-pull configurations are IC pin drivingÂ techniques (particularly output pin). Nowadays ICs such as microcontrollers, digital signal controllers and processors are already configurable. The programmer can set the output pin to either open collector or push-pull implementations. Open collector is an implementation wherein the IC will not provide the supply by itself the external circuit by floating its

## What is Source and Sink Current

What is source and sink current? Source and sink currents are used by integrated circuits such as microcontrollers, digital signal controllers, digital signal processor and any application specific integrated circuits. Sometimes these are being interchanged by others that it should not be. In this article we will know the answer of the question what is source and sink current. Source

## Tools That Can be Used in Control System Design

Designing control systems needs a tool to speed up the task. Here are the tools that can be used in control system design. Matlab control systems toolbox is in the top of the list then followed by Simulink control design. I also included here simpowersystems because of its usefulness in power electronics. Control system is not as easy as ohms